IS AN OUTSTANDING ENVIRONMENT ALWAYS PRESERVED? WHEN THE MOST DIVERSE CAVE IN SUBTERRANEAN SPECIES BECOMES ONE OF THE MOST ENDANGERED IN A LANDSCAPE.
Palavras-chave:Karst, Tropical habitat, Endemic species, Troglobites, Conservation
ResumoIn this paper, we present unprecedented data sampled since 2010 from the richest cave regarding troglobitic fauna from the Arcos-Pains-Doresópolis (APD) Brazilian speleological province, the Éden limestone cave. Therefore, we assessed the cave biodiversity in dry and wet periods to highlight troglobites and troglophiles terrestrial and aquatic (stream and epikarst) fauna, besides of qualifying human activities that can directly or indirectly affect the cave. We also included here data gather from Zampaulo thesis (2010) that used the same sampling methods. The Éden cave harbor at least 93 troglophilic invertebrates species belonging to 66 families, being Araneae (23 spp.), Diptera (13 spp.), Coleoptera (10 spp.), Acari (7 spp.), Hymenoptera (7 spp.) and Collembola (4 spp.) the richest taxa. Furthermore, 13 invertebrates species with troglomorphic traits were found: Paratricommatus sp. (Opiliones, Cryptogeobiidae), Chthoniidae sp. (Pseudoscorpiones, Chthoniidae), two Styloniscidae spp. (Isopoda), Blattellidae sp. (Blattodea), Arrhopalites sp. (Collembola, Arrhopalitidae), three Carabidae spp. (Coleoptera), Symphyla sp., Pseudonannolene ambuatinga (Spirostreptida, Pseudonannolenidae), Sphaerodesmidae sp. (Polydesmida) and Harpacticoida sp (Crustacea). The cave harbor at least 16,25% of local biodiversity of obligate cave fauna from the APD province. The invertebrate fauna showed distinct richness and abundance values according to upper and lower cave levels. The lower level features a higher number of species when compared to the upper level, probably due to the stream presence and high humidity. The cave is inserted in a drainage basin with intense agricultural, pastures, mining and urban activities. Therefore, the main concern is that conservation will not only depend on actions focused on the cave, but should also focus on the intense social and economic conflicts in the small drainage basin.